A-Z

Please be aware these definitions and descriptions are the generally accepted ones. They may not entirely reflect my personal views and are only given for purposes of what some consider 'accuracy'.

Critias (460 – 403 BC) was an author and political figure ancient Athenian political figure born in Athens, He was a first cousin of Plato's mother Perictione and an associate of Socrates. After the fall of Athens he was one of the leading Thirty Tyrants. The oligarchs put in place by Sparta, would ultimately be costly for Socrates. Critias is the prominent narrator in Plato's Dialogue of the same name, providing the first written account of Atlantis.

Homer Some regard the Homeric Poems as a philosophy and not attributable to any specific individual. Speculation over the birth of Homer as a person ranges between 1102-800 BC, coincidentally(?) the dates given as being the Greek Dark Ages. Evidence suggests it is probable Homer was a real person and Plato mentions him in Republic. Irrespective of this, the Iliad is thought to date around 750 BC and was, in terms of influence, on a par with the Christian Bible at the time of the early philosophers.

Odysseus (c.1230-1165 BC) The main character in Homer's Odyssey, telling of the hero's long arduous journey back from the Trojan War. He was son of Laertes (one of the Argonauts) whose genealogy can be traced back to Aeolus. The Roman's called him Ulysses and he was loathed for his trickery which was much admired by the Greeks.

Olympians - The generally accepted view is of Twelve Olympian Gods as are listed below. They took up residence on Mount Olympus and fought against the Titans. The Olympians are mostly more humanised than their predecessors / parents and can therefore be given a little more credence
  1. Zeus  considered overall ruler of Olympus. Genealogies have him as both brother and husband of Hera. he was also the brother of Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, and Hestia.
  2. Hera the queen of the gods. Wife and sister of Zeus. Her marriage to brother Zeus is often marked by her jealousy of Zeus and his many indiscretions.
  3. Poseidon God of the seas whose offspring were the first to rule Doric Atlantis. Brother of Zeus and Hades. Like Zeus, Poseidon was not for having many lovers.
  4. Demeter is the Mother Nature type Goddess, also representative of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons. Symbols include the poppy, wheat, torch, cornucopia, and pig. Middle daughter of the Titan Cronus and Rhea.
  5. Athena the Goddess of wisdom, science, and strategy. Symbols include the owl and the olive tree. Allegedly a daughter of Zeus and the Oceanid Metis..
  6. Apollo the God, light, inspiration and the arts, is supposedly another son of Zeus and is the twin brother of Artemis. Apollo I associate with the Ionians in contrast to Zeus / Poseidon who were Dorian / Minoan.
  7. Artemis Goddess of the hunt among other things. As much as I would associate her brother Apollo with the Ionians, Artemis has all the qualities most commonly associated with Achaeans,
  8. Ares the God of war. Another purported son of Zeus, this time with wife Hera. Ares was much loathed by most of the other Gods.
  9. Aphrodite Goddess of love and serial adulteress who was married to Hephaestus. There are varying accounts of her genealogy with Zeus again implicated as well as Uranus.
  10. Hephaestus God of metallurgy, fire and the forge. Son of Hera, probably by Zeus. He was married to Aphrodite.
  11. Hermes the messenger God, son of Zeus and the nymph Maia. One of the youngest Olympians. Possibly significant to the development of literature. just older than Dionysus
  12. Dionysus the God of wine and ecstasy. The youngest Olympian and the only one to have a mortal mother (Ariadne a Cretan princess). Other lists have Dionysus replaced by Hestia the Goddess of domesticity, daughter of Cronus and elder sister to Zeus and Poseidon (among others).
It should be noted that all these Olympians have Roman names or equivalents.

Others sometimes included in the list of twelve -
  • Hades the God of the Underworld
  • Heracles (the first one) a hero, son of Zeus and Alcmene
  • Persephone daughter of Demeter and Zeus. She became the consort of Hades after he kidnapped her
  • Asclepius the God of medicine and healing, son of Apollo and Coronis.
  • Eros the God of love, son of Aphrodite and Ares. 
  • Hebe the goddess of youth. A daughter of Zeus and Hera. she was the cup-bearer on Mount Olympus until she married Heracles.
Many other Gods, Goddesses, heroes, natural phenomena, were closely linked to the Olympians but were not deemed such themselves, these include those listed below. Some have particular significance.
  • Aeolus – King of the winds
  • Amphitrite – Queen of the Sea, wife of Poseidon and mother of Triton.
  • Anemoi – Representative of the four wind directions
  • Aura – Goddess of fresh air.
  • Bia – Personification of force.
  • Circe – minor Goddess of magic and familiar name
  • Deimos – son of Ares and brother of Phobos.
  • Dione - mother of Aphrodite by Zeus in Homer's version.
  • Eileithyia – Goddess of childbirth; daughter of Hera and Zeus.
  • Enyo – linked to Ares either as a sister or a companion with Zeus as a possible father.
  • Eos – Personification of dawn.
  • Eris – Goddess of strife.
  • Ganymede – Cup-bearer of the gods on Olympus.
  • Harmonia – Goddess of harmony, daughter of Aphrodite.
  • Hecate – Goddess majorly associated with magic.
  • Hypnos – God of sleep.
  • Iris – messenger of Olympus along with Hermes.
  • Kratos – Personification of power.
  • Moirai – The Fates
  • Momus – God of satire.
  • Morpheus – God of dreams.
  • Muses – Nine Goddesses of science and arts.
  • Nemesis – Goddess of retribution.
  • Nike – Goddess of victory.
  • Nyx – Goddess of night.
  • Paean – Physician of the gods.
  • Perseus – Son of Zeus, the legendary founder of Mycenae.
  • Phantasos - God of surreal dreams.
  • Phobos – God of fear, son of Ares.
  • Thanatos – God of Death
  • Theseus – hero of Athens, son of Poseidon and slayer of the Minotaur.
  • Triton – Messenger of the Seas, son of Poseidon.
  • Tyche – Goddess of Luck.

Parian Chronicle
is a Greek chronology inscribed on Parian Marble, a marble stele found in two parts on the isle of Paros. It covers the years 1582-299 BC and is thought to have been erected 264/3 BC. The upper fragment includes entries for 1582/1, 1529/8 (Deucalion Flood), and 1217-08 BC the Trojan War. Events, such as the voyage of the Argonauts, are stated as historical fact rather than myth.

Solon (c. 640 – 558 BC) Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and a poet. He tried to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in ancient Athens. He failed but is credited with laying the foundations for Athenian democracy. Solon is stated as being a close friend of Dropidas (the great grandfather of Critias) and the source of the Atlantis story, intimated to him by priests in Egypt.

Titans - From a mythological view, the Titans were an eldest generation of gods with human characteristics. That is to say they do not solely represent the elements (night/day/earth/sky/etc). They ruled the cosmos before the Olympians usurped them. The eldest of the Titans--Cronus and his four brothers, Crius, Coeus, Hyperion, and Iapetus--were imprisoned in Tartarus by Zeus. Many of the younger Titan gods allied with Zeus but later fell from favour according to the myths. The female Titans or Titanides remained neutral in the War, and retained their positions as prophetic goddesses.
  1. Adanos - one of the elder Titan sons of Uranus.
  2. Andes - another elder son of Uranus. Perhaps an alternate name for Hyperion.
  3. Ankhiale - younger Titan goddess representing the warmth of fire. Wife of Hekaterus and mother of the Daktyloi who taught mortals metal-working,mathematics and the alphabet..
  4. Anytos - one of the younger Titans or Curetes. He was an attendant of the goddess Demeter and raised her Arcadian daughter Despoina.
  5. Asteria - a younger goddess presiding over the night, stars and nocturnal prophecy. After the fall of the Titans she was pursued by Zeus, she leapt into the sea to escape him and was transformed into the island of Delos.
  6. Astraios - the younger god of the stars, winds, and astrology. Father of the four directional winds and five 'wandering stars' (Planeta) by wife Eos, the goddess of the dawn.
  7. Atlas - younger god of astronomy and the heavenly constellations. He was arrested by Zeus and condemned to bear the heavens upon his shoulders.
  8. Aura - the younger goddess of the breezes. She was a virgin huntress raped by the god Dionysos.
  9. Clymene - a younger goddess of fame and renown. Wife of Iapetos and mother of Prometheus.
  10. Coeus - god of the intellect, aka Polus (the pole) presiding over the axis of heaven in the north around which the constellations revolve. Coeus was one of the four brothers who conspired with Cronos in the ambush and castration of Uranus. He was sometimes described as leader of the Gigantes, who rebelled against Zeus.
  11. Crius - god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year. He was associated with the constellation Aries, which the Greeks called Crius. Its spring rising marked the start of the new year, the other constellations were said to follow in its wake. Another of the brothers who conspired with Cronos.
  12. Cronus - the King of the Titanes, and the god of destructive time. He led his brothers in overthrowing their father Uranus, but was later deposed by his own son Zeus. Some say the old Titan was later released by Zeus and appointed King of Islands of the Blessed, home of the favoured dead.
  13. Curetes - a group of shield clashing Daemones or Titan gods who came to the aid of Rhea to act as guardians of her son Zeus. They were sometimes called Gigantes, and were probably the same as those which Hesiod described as being born from the castration of Uranus.
  14. Dione - a prophetic goddess who according to some was the mother of the goddess Aphrodite.
  15. Eos - the younger goddess of the dawn. She was the mother of the wandering stars (Planeta) and the four directional winds by Astraios.
  16. Epimetheus - the god of afterthought. He created the beasts of the earth, while his brother Prometheus was busy with the crafting of man. Epimetheus was tricked by Zeus into receiving Pandora, the first woman, and her jar of evils into the house of man.
  17. Eurybia - goddess of the power of the sea. She was the wife of Crius.
  18. Eurynome (a) - younger Titan-goddess of earth's flowery meadows. She was the mother of the three lovely Graces by Zeus.
  19. Eurynome (b) - younger Titan-goddess of the earth's meadows. She was the wife of the first Titan-King Ophion. The couple were cast from heaven by Cronos and Rhea who wrestled them for the throne. This Eurynome may have been the same as Tethys.
  20. Gigantes - Much uncertainty surrounds the Gigantes with many conflicting views. This is probably due to them being a symbolic representation of great strength. Sometimes the Gigantes were represented as soldiers in the army of the Titan-gods, or as rebellious supporters of the deposed Titan Cronos.
  21. Hecate - younger goddess of ghosts, witchcraft and necromancy. She supported Zeus in the Titan war and so retained all of her privileges.
  22. Helios - god of the sun who rode across the sky in a chariot drawn by four fiery, winged steeds. He was an ally of Zeus in the Titan-War.
  23. Hoplodamus - A Titan, Giant or Curete who with his brothers came to the aid of Rhea after Cronos learnt of her deception surrounding the birth of Zeus.
  24. Hyperion - the god of light, and of the cycles of time measured by the lights of heaven -- the sun, the moon and the dawn. Hyperion was one of the four brother Titans who held Uranus fast while Cronus castrated him with the sickle. At the end of the Titan War he was cast into the pit of Tartarus by Zeus.
  25. Iapetus - god of mortality and the allotment of the mortal life-span. His sons Prometheus and Epimetheus were the creators of animals and men. Iapetus was one of the four brothers who held Uranus while Cronos castrated him.
  26. Lelantos - god of the breezes of the air. His name means 'unnoticed' or 'unseen one'.
  27. Leto - younger goddess of motherhood, light, and womanly demure. She was the mother of the twin gods Apollo and Artemis by Zeus.
  28. Megamedes - another name for Crius, meaning 'great lord'.
  29. Melisseus - the Titan or Curete god of honey. He was one of the protectors of the infant Zeus. His daughters were the god's nurses.
  30. Menoetius - god of violent anger and rash action. Zeus blasted him into Erebus with a thunderbolt, where he became a bondsman of King Hades.
  31. Metis - younger goddess of good counsel. She was an ally of Zeus in the Titan War who fed Cronos an elixir which forced him to disgorge his five devoured children. Later she was swallowed whole by Zeus who had learned that a son born of their union was destined to depose him. Their only child was instead a daughter, Athena, who sprang fully grown from her father's head.
  32. Mnemosyne - elder goddess of memory, words and language. She was the mother of the nine Muses by Zeus. Mnemosyne was also a prophetic goddess associated with the oracle of Trophonius in Lebadeia.
  33. Muses (elder) - three Titan goddesses of music and song. One of them, Mneme (Memory), was the mother of the nine younger Muses by Zeus.
  34. Mylinus - a Titan or Giant of the island of Crete who was destroyed by Zeus. His name means "he of the grinding millstone" and he was perhaps the same as Cronos 'time'.
  35. Oceanus - god of the earth-encircling, fresh-water river Oceanus. As a Titan god he presided over the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies : the sun, the moon, the stars, and the dawn. His ever-flowing waters, encircling the edges of the cosmos were associated with the neverending flow of time. Oceanus was the only one of the brother Uranides not to participate in the castration of their father Uranus. In the Titan-War he remained neutral, giving his tacit support to Zeus.
  36. Olymbrus - an alternate name for one of the elder Titans. He may be the same as Olympus the Cretan mentor of Zeus.
  37. Olympus - a Cretan Titan or Giant who mentored Zeus in his youth. Olympus (whose name may derive from a word meaning eternal time) was perhaps the same as Cronos or Olymbrus.
  38. Ophion - eldest of the Titan gods whose brother Cronos wrestled him for the throne of heaven and cast him down into the Ocean-stream. He was probably the same as Oceanus.
  39. Ostasus - an alternative name for one of the Titan sons of Uranus.
  40. Pallas - god of warcraft and the military campaign. Some say Athena defeated him in battle and crafted her aegis-cape from his goatish skin.
  41. Perses - god of destruction and summer droughts whose name means 'destroyer'. Like his daughter Hecate, he was probably associated with the dog-star, the source of scorching heat of mid-summer.
  42. Phoebe - elder goddess of intellect and prophetic goddess of the great Oracle of Delphi. She was the grandmother of the god Apollo.
  43. Phorcys - the old man of the sea was sometimes named as one of the six Titan sons of Uranus.
  44. Polus - god of the axis of heaven (polos). He was usually called Coeus.
  45. Prometheus - god of forethought and the creator and benefactor of man. He defied Zeus on several occasions, including tricking the gods out of the best share of the sacrificial meat, and stealing fire from heaven for the benefit of mankind. Zeus had Prometheus chained to Mount Caucasus, where an eagle was set to devour his ever-regenerating liver. The Titan was eventually released from his tortures by Heracles.
  46. Rhea - Queen of the Titans and goddess of female fertility and the mountain wilds. She saved her son Zeus from Cronos by substituting the child for a stone wrapped in swaddling cloth. The Titan had devoured her other five children, but these were later freed by Zeus.
  47. Selene - younger goddess of the moon.
  48. Styx - younger goddess of oaths of allegiance and of the netherworld River Styx. She brought her children Victory, Rivalry, Force and Power to the side of Zeus at the start of the Titan-War.
  49. Syceus - a Titan or giant who fled from Zeus in the course of their war against the gods. He was hidden by his mother in the earth in the guise of a fig tree or its sprouting seed.
  50. Tethys - elder goddess of the sources of fresh-water. She was known as the great nurse (tethis) of life and was sometimes equated with Thesis, the goddess creation. Tethys spawned the Rivers, Clouds and Springs.
  51. Theia - elder goddess of sight and the shining light of heaven. She was the mother of Sun, Moon and Dawn. Her name is also connected with words meaning foresight and prophecy.
  52. Themis - elder goddess of the natural order, divine law and tradition. She was also a goddess of the oracles of Dodona and Delphi. By Zeus she was the mother of the goddess Fates and of the Seasons, and had a seat by his side on Olympus as advisor.
  53. Titan - a Titan god who instructed mankind in the observation of the stars and establishment of the natural or farming calendar. He was perhaps the same as Atlas.

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